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Kubernetes

Summary#

The Kubernetes service discovery List-Watch real-time changes of Endpoints resources, then store theirs value into ngx.shared.DICT.

Discovery also provides a node query interface in accordance with the APISIX Discovery Specification.

How To Use#

Kubernetes service discovery both support single-cluster and multi-cluster mode, applicable to the case where the service is distributed in a single or multiple Kubernetes clusters.

Single-Cluster Mode Configuration#

A detailed configuration for single-cluster mode Kubernetes service discovery is as follows:

discovery:
kubernetes:
service:
# apiserver schema, options [http, https]
schema: https #default https

# apiserver host, options [ipv4, ipv6, domain, environment variable]
host: ${KUBERNETES_SERVICE_HOST} #default ${KUBERNETES_SERVICE_HOST}

# apiserver port, options [port number, environment variable]
port: ${KUBERNETES_SERVICE_PORT} #default ${KUBERNETES_SERVICE_PORT}

client:
# serviceaccount token or token_file
token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token

#token: |-
# eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6Ikx5ME1DNWdnbmhQNkZCNlZYMXBsT3pYU3BBS2swYzBPSkN3ZnBESGpkUEEif
# 6Ikx5ME1DNWdnbmhQNkZCNlZYMXBsT3pYU3BBS2swYzBPSkN3ZnBESGpkUEEifeyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI

default_weight: 50 # weight assigned to each discovered endpoint. default 50, minimum 0

# kubernetes discovery support namespace_selector
# you can use one of [equal, not_equal, match, not_match] filter namespace
namespace_selector:
# only save endpoints with namespace equal default
equal: default

# only save endpoints with namespace not equal default
#not_equal: default

# only save endpoints with namespace match one of [default, ^my-[a-z]+$]
#match:
#- default
#- ^my-[a-z]+$

# only save endpoints with namespace not match one of [default, ^my-[a-z]+$ ]
#not_match:
#- default
#- ^my-[a-z]+$

# kubernetes discovery support label_selector
# for the expression of label_selector, please refer to https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/overview/working-with-objects/labels
label_selector: |-
first="a",second="b"

# reserved lua shared memory size,1m memory can store about 1000 pieces of endpoint
shared_size: 1m #default 1m

If the Kubernetes service discovery runs inside a pod, you can use minimal configuration:

discovery:
kubernetes: { }

If the Kubernetes service discovery runs outside a pod, you need to create or select a specified ServiceAccount, then get its token value, and use following configuration:

discovery:
kubernetes:
service:
schema: https
host: # enter apiserver host value here
port: # enter apiserver port value here
client:
token: # enter serviceaccount token value here
#token_file: # enter file path here

Single-Cluster Mode Query Interface#

The Kubernetes service discovery provides a query interface in accordance with the APISIX Discovery Specification.

function: nodes(service_name)

description: nodes() function attempts to look up the ngx.shared.DICT for nodes corresponding to servicename, \ service_name should match pattern: [namespace]/[name]:[portName]_

  • namespace: The namespace where the Kubernetes endpoints is located

  • name: The name of the Kubernetes endpoints

  • portName: The ports.name value in the Kubernetes endpoints, if there is no ports.name, use targetPort, port instead

return value: if the Kubernetes endpoints value is as follows:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Endpoints
metadata:
name: plat-dev
namespace: default
subsets:
- addresses:
- ip: "10.5.10.109"
- ip: "10.5.10.110"
ports:
- port: 3306
name: port

a nodes("default/plat-dev:port") call will get follow result:

 {
{
host="10.5.10.109",
port= 3306,
weight= 50,
},
{
host="10.5.10.110",
port= 3306,
weight= 50,
},
}

Multi-Cluster Mode Configuration#

A detailed configuration for multi-cluster mode Kubernetes service discovery is as follows:

discovery:
kubernetes:
- id: release # a custom name refer to the cluster, pattern ^[a-z0-9]{1,8}
service:
# apiserver schema, options [http, https]
schema: https #default https

# apiserver host, options [ipv4, ipv6, domain, environment variable]
host: "1.cluster.com"

# apiserver port, options [port number, environment variable]
port: "6443"

client:
# serviceaccount token or token_file
token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token

#token: |-
# eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6Ikx5ME1DNWdnbmhQNkZCNlZYMXBsT3pYU3BBS2swYzBPSkN3ZnBESGpkUEEif
# 6Ikx5ME1DNWdnbmhQNkZCNlZYMXBsT3pYU3BBS2swYzBPSkN3ZnBESGpkUEEifeyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI

default_weight: 50 # weight assigned to each discovered endpoint. default 50, minimum 0

# kubernetes discovery support namespace_selector
# you can use one of [equal, not_equal, match, not_match] filter namespace
namespace_selector:
# only save endpoints with namespace equal default
equal: default

# only save endpoints with namespace not equal default
#not_equal: default

# only save endpoints with namespace match one of [default, ^my-[a-z]+$]
#match:
#- default
#- ^my-[a-z]+$

# only save endpoints with namespace not match one of [default, ^my-[a-z]+$]
#not_match:
#- default
#- ^my-[a-z]+$

# kubernetes discovery support label_selector
# for the expression of label_selector, please refer to https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/overview/working-with-objects/labels
label_selector: |-
first="a",second="b"

# reserved lua shared memory size,1m memory can store about 1000 pieces of endpoint
shared_size: 1m #default 1m

Multi-Kubernetes service discovery does not fill default values for service and client fields, you need to fill them according to the cluster configuration.

Multi-Cluster Mode Query Interface#

The Kubernetes service discovery provides a query interface in accordance with the APISIX Discovery Specification.

function: nodes(service_name)

description: nodes() function attempts to look up the ngx.shared.DICT for nodes corresponding to servicename, \ service_name should match pattern: [id]/[namespace]/[name]:[portName]_

  • id: value defined in service discovery configuration

  • namespace: The namespace where the Kubernetes endpoints is located

  • name: The name of the Kubernetes endpoints

  • portName: The ports.name value in the Kubernetes endpoints, if there is no ports.name, use targetPort, port instead

return value: if the Kubernetes endpoints value is as follows:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Endpoints
metadata:
name: plat-dev
namespace: default
subsets:
- addresses:
- ip: "10.5.10.109"
- ip: "10.5.10.110"
ports:
- port: 3306
name: port

a nodes("release/default/plat-dev:port") call will get follow result:

 {
{
host="10.5.10.109",
port= 3306,
weight= 50,
},
{
host="10.5.10.110",
port= 3306,
weight= 50,
},
}

Q&A#

Q: Why only support configuration token to access Kubernetes APIServer?

A: Usually, we will use three ways to complete the authentication of Kubernetes APIServer:

  • mTLS
  • Token
  • Basic authentication

Because lua-resty-http does not currently support mTLS, and basic authentication is not recommended, so currently only the token authentication method is implemented.

Q: APISIX inherits Nginx's multiple process model, does it mean that each nginx worker process will List-Watch kubernetes endpoints resources?

A: The Kubernetes service discovery only uses privileged processes to List-Watch Kubernetes endpoints resources, then store theirs value into ngx.shared.DICT, worker processes get results by querying ngx.shared.DICT.

Q: What permissions do ServiceAccount require?

A: ServiceAccount requires the permissions of cluster-level [ get, list, watch ] endpoints resources, the declarative definition is as follows:

kind: ServiceAccount
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
name: apisix-test
namespace: default
---

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
name: apisix-test
rules:
- apiGroups: [ "" ]
resources: [ endpoints ]
verbs: [ get,list,watch ]
---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
name: apisix-test
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: apisix-test
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: apisix-test
namespace: default

Q: How to get ServiceAccount token value?

A: Assume your ServiceAccount located in namespace apisix and name is Kubernetes-discovery, you can use the following steps to get token value.

  1. Get secret name. You can execute the following command, the output of the first column is the secret name we want:

    kubectl -n apisix get secrets | grep kubernetes-discovery
  2. Get token value. Assume secret resources name is kubernetes-discovery-token-c64cv, you can execute the following command, the output is the service account token value we want:

    kubectl -n apisix get secret kubernetes-discovery-token-c64cv -o jsonpath={.data.token} | base64 -d